Blood in the urine


Blood in the urine is a non-specific finding that requires further investigation. It can be associated with benign, self-resolving conditions or more ominous malignant conditions (i.e. cancer).

Differential Diagnosis

  • Essentially any disorder of the urinary tract, whether benign or malignant, can cause blood in the urine.
  • Common causes: Urinary tract infection (i.e bladder infection, kidney infection), benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), urinary tract stones, kidney cancer, ureteral cancer, bladder cancer, urethral cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cysts, various kidney syndromes or disorders, bleeding disorder, foreign body in the urinary tract, vascular abnormalities (i.e hemangioma, pseudo-blood in the urine (i.e. dietary or medication products that discolor the urine), trauma to the urinary tract.


  • Lab tests to evaluate kidney function, electrolytes, blood count, coagulation panel, etc.
  • Urine tests: Urinalysis, urine culture and sensitivity, urine cytology (i.e. urine test evaluating for tumor cells.)
  • Imaging of the urinary tract, most commonly with a CT scan, but also with plain films, ultrasound, and MRI as necessary.
  • Cystoscopy (i.e. using scopes to look into the bladder and urethra)

Treatment Options

    • Depends on the etiology found.